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## Mechanical 3rd Sem Syllabus Diploma Subjects

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### APPLIED MATHEMATICS –III

#### 1. Matrices (16 Periods)

• 1.1 Algebra of Matrices, Inverse Addition, Multiplication of matrices, Null matrix and a unit matrix, Square matrix, Symmetric, Skew symmetric, Hermitian, Skew hermition, Orthagonal, Unitary, diagonal and Triangular matrix, Determinant of a matrix. Definition and Computation of inverse of a matrix.
• 1.2 Elementry Row/Column Transformation Meaning and use in computing inverse and rank of a matrix.
• 1.3 Linear Dependence, Rank of a Matrix Linear dependence/independence of vectors, Definition and computation of rank of matrix. Computing rank through determinants, Elementary row transformation and through the concept of a set of independent vectors, Consistency of equations.
• 1.4 Eigen Pairs, Cayley-Hamilton Theorem :Definition and evaluation of eign values and eign vectors of a matrix of order two and three, Cayley-Hamilton theorem (without Proof)and its verification, Use in finding inverse and powers of a matrix.

#### 2. Differential Calculus (15 Periods)

• 2.1 Function of two variables, identification of surfaces in space, conicoids
• 2.2 Partial Differentiation Directional derivative, Gradient, Use of gradient f, Partial derivatives, Chain rule, Higher order derivatives, Euler’s theorem for homogeneous functions, Jacobians.
• 2.3 Vector Calculus Vector function, Introduction todouble and triple integral,differentiation and integration of vector functions, gradient, divergence and curl, differential derivatives.

#### 3. Differential Equation (15 Periods)

• 3.1 Formation, Order, Degree, Types, Solution Formation of differential equations through physical, geometrical, mechanical and electrical considerations, Order, Degree of a differential equation, Linear, nonlinear equation.
• 3.2 First Order Equations Variable seperable, equations reducible to seperable forms, Homogeneous equtions, equations reducible to homogeneous forms, Linear and Bernoulli form exact equation and their solutions.
• 3.3 Higher Order Linear Equation : Property of solution, Linear differential equation with constant coefficients
• (PI for X= eax, Sinax, Cosax, Xn ,eaxV, XV
• 3.4 Simple Applications LCR circuit, Motion under gravity, Newton’s law of cooling, radioactive decay, Population growth, Force vibration of a mass point attached to spring with and without damping effect. Equivalence of electrical and mechanical system

#### 4. Integral Calculus-II (12 Periods)

• 4.1 Beta and Gamma Functions Definition, Use, Relation between the two, their use in evaluating integrals.
• 4.2 Fourier Series Fourier series of f(x),-n<x<n, Odd and even function,Half range series.
• 4.3 Laplace Transform Definition, Basic theorem and properties, Unit step and Periodic functions, inverse laplace transform, Solution of ordinary differential equations

#### 5. Probability and Statistics (12 Periods)

##### 5.1 Probability
•  Introduction, Addition and Multiplication theorem and simple problem.
##### 5.2 Distribution
•  Discrete and continuous distribution, Bionimal Distribution, Poisson distribution, Normal Distribution.

### ENGINEERING MATERIALS

#### 1. Introduction (06 Periods)

Material, History of Material Origin, Scope of Material Science, Overview of different engineering materials and applications, Classification of materials, Thermal, Chemical, Electrical, Mechanical properties of various materials, Present and future needs of materials, Overview of Biomaterials and semi-conducting materials, Various issues of Material Usage-Economical, Environment and Social.

#### 2. Crystallography (08 Periods)

Fundamentals: Crystal, Unit Cell, Space Lattice, Arrangement of atoms in Simple Cubic Crystals, BCC, FCC and HCP Crystals, Number of atoms per unit Cell, Atomic Packing Factor. Deformation: Overview of deformation behavior and its mechanism, behavior of material under load control and strain control.

Failure Mechanisms: Overview of failure modes, fracture, fatigue and creep.

#### 3. Metals And Alloys (12 Periods)

Ferrous Materials: Different iron ores, Raw materials in production of iron and steel,Basic process of iron-making and steel-making, Classification of iron and steel.

Cast Iron: Different types of Cast Iron, manufacture and their use. Classification of Grey cast iron and S.G. iron Steels: Steels and alloy steel, Classification of plain carbon steels, Properties and usage of different types of Plain Carbon Steels, Effect of various alloys on properties of steel, Uses of alloy steels (high speed steel, stainless steel, spring steel, silicon steel) Non Ferrous Materials: Properties and uses of Aluminum, Copper and Zinc and their alloys

#### 4. Heat Treatment (06 Periods)

Purpose of heat treatment, Solid solutions and its types, Formation and decomposition of Austenite, Martensitic Transformation – Simplified Transformation Cooling Curves. Various heat treatment processes- hardening, tempering, annealing, normalizing, Case hardening and surface hardening, Hardenability of steels, Selection of case carburizing and induction hardening steels. Types of heat treatment furnaces (only basic idea)

#### 5. Plastics (06 Periods)

Important sources of plastics, Classification-thermoplastic and thermoset and their uses, Various trade names of plastics, Plastic coatings, food grade plastics. Applications of plastics in automobile and domestic use. Rubber classification – Natural and synthetic. Selection of rubber

#### 6. Advanced Materials (06 Periods)

Composites-Classification, properties, applications Ceramics-Classification, properties, applications  Adhesives – Classification, properties and applications Smart materials – properties and applications.

#### 7. Miscellaneous Materials (06 Periods)

Overview of -Tool and Die materials, Materials for bearing metals, Materials for Nuclear Energy, Refractory materials.

#### 8. Identification and Testing of Materials (Destructive and NDT) (06 Periods)

Identification of metal by giving mini projects. Destructive testing: Stress testing, Harness testing Non-destructive testing: Eddy-current, Magnetic-particle, Liquid penetration, radiographic, Ultrasounic and visual testing

### MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

#### 1. Stresses and Strains (08 Periods)

•  1.1. Basic assumptions; Concept of load, stress and strain
•  1.2. Tensile compressive and shear stresses and strains
•  1.3. Concept of Elasticity, Elastic limit and limit of proportionality.
•  1.3.1. Nominal and true stress-strain diagrams.
•  1.3.2 Hook’s Law
•  1.3.3. Young Modulus of elasticity
•  1.3.4. Nominal stress
•  1.3.5. Yield point, plastic stage
•  1.3.6 Ultimate strength and breaking stress
• 1.3.7. Percentage elongation
•  1.3.8. Proof stress and working stress
•  1.3.9. Factor of safety
•  1.3.10 Poisson’s Ratio
•  1.3.11 Shear modulus
•  1.3.12 Deflection and stiffness
• 1.4. Concepts of fatigue, creep and stress concentration
• 1.5. Thermal stresses

#### 2. Resilience (04 Periods)

• 2.1 Resilience, proof resilience and modulus of resilience
• 2.2 Strain energy due to direct stresses

#### 3. Moment of Inertia (05 Periods)

•  3.1. Concept of moment of inertia and second moment of area
• 3.3 Theorem of perpendicular axis and parallel axis (without derivation)
• 3.4 Second moment of area of common geometrical sections :Rectangle, Triangle,Circle (without derivation); Second moment of area for L,T and I section
• 3.5 Section modulus

#### 4. Bending Stresses (06 Periods)

•  4.1 Concept of Bending stresses
•  4.2. Theory of simple bending
•  4.3. Use of the equation σ/y = M/I = E/R
•  4.4. Concept of moment of resistance
•  4.5. Bending stress diagram
•  4.6. Calculation of maximum bending stress in beams of rectangular, circular, and T section.
•  4.7 Permissible bending stress Section modulus for rectangular, circular and symmetrical I section.

#### 5. Torsion (06 Periods)

•  5.1. Concept of torsion- difference between torque and torsion.
•  5.2. Use of torque equation for circular shaft
•  5.3. Comparison between solid and hollow shaft with regard to their strength and weight.
•  5.4. Power transmitted by shaft
•  5.5 Concept of mean and maximum torque
•  5.6 Concept of Principal stresses, principal planes and max. shear stress.
•  5.7 Determination of shaft diameter under combined bending and torsion.

#### 6. Shear Force and Bending Moment (10 Periods)

•  6.2 Concept of end supports-Roller, hinged and fixed
•  6.3 Concept of bending moment and shearing force
•  6.4 S.F. and B.M. Diagram for cantilever and simply supported beams with and without overhang subjected to concentrated load and U.D.L.

#### 7. Columns (05 Periods)

•  7.1. Concept of column, modes of failure
•  7.2. Types of columns
•  7.4. Slenderness ratio
•  7.5. Factors effecting strength of a column
•  7.6 End restraints
•  7.7 Effective length
•  7.8 Strength of column by Euler Formula without derivation
•  7.9. Rankine Gourdan formula ( without derivation)

#### 8. Thin Cylinder and Spherical Shells (04 Periods)

• 8.1 Introduction to longitudinal stresses, circumferential or hoop stresses and radial stresses
• 8.2 Longitudinal and circumferential stresses in thin cylinder
• 8.3 Longitudinal and circumferential stresses in thin Spherical shells

#### 9. Slope and Deflections of Beams: (08 Periods)

• 9.1 Definition of slope and deflection, sign convention. Circular bending. Calculation
• of maximum slope and deflection for the following standard cases by double integration or moment area method.
• a) Cantilever having point load at the free end
• b) Cantilever having point load at any point of the span
• c) Cantilever with uniformly distributed load over the entire span
• d) Cantilever having U.D.L. over part of the span from free end
• e) Cantilever having U.D.L. over a part of span from fixed end
• f) Simply supported beam with point load at centre of the span.
• g) Simply supported beam with U.D. L. over entire span.
•  Note: All examples will be for constant moment of inertia without derivation of formula.

### THERMAL ENGINEERING

#### 1. Fundamental Concepts (06 Periods)

Thermodynamic state and system, boundary, surrounding, universe, thermodynamic systems – closed, open, isolated, adiabatic, homogeneous and heterogeneous, macroscopic and microscopic, properties of system – intensive and extensive,thermodynamic equilibrium, quasi – static process, reversible and irreversible processes,Zeroth law of thermodynamics, definition of properties like pressure, volume, temperature, enthalpy, internal energy.

#### 2. Laws of Perfect Gases (03 Periods)

Definition of gases, explanation of perfect gas laws – Boyle’s law, Charle’s law,Avagadro’s law, Regnault’s law, Universal gas constant, Characteristic gas constants,derivation Specific heat at constant pressure, specific heat at constant volume of gas,simple problems on gas equation

#### 3. Thermodynamic Processes on Gases (05 Periods)

Types of thermodynamic processes – isochoric, isobaric, isothermal, hyperbolic,isentropic, polytropic and throttling processes, equations representing the processes Derivation of work done, change in internal energy, rate of heat transfer for the above processes

#### 4. Laws of Thermodynamics (06 Periods)

Laws of conservation of energy, first law of thermodynamics (Joule’s experiment),Application of first law of thermodynamics to non-flow systems – Constant volume,constant pressure, Adiabatic and polytropic processes.

Steady flow energy equation, Application of steady flow energy to equation, turbines,pump, boilers, nozzles.

Heat source and heat sinks, statement of second laws of thermodynamics: Kelvin Planck’s statement, Clasius statement, Perpetual motion Machine of first kind, second kind, Carnot engine, Introduction of third law of thermodynamics, concept of irreversibility, entropy, ideal and real gases.

#### 5. Properties of Steam (05 Periods)

Formation of steam and related terms, thermodynamics properties of steam, steam tables, internal latent heat, internal energy of steam, Mollier diagram (H – S Chart), Expansion of steam, Hyperbolic, reversible adiabatic and throttling processes Quality of steam (dryness fraction),

#### 6. Steam Generators (04 Periods)

Uses of steam, classification of boilers, comparison of fire tube and water tube boilers. Construction features of Lancashire boiler, Nestler boiler, Babcock & Wilcox Boiler. Introduction to modern boilers.

#### 7. Air Standard Cycles (04 Periods)

Meaning of air standard cycle – its use, condition of reversibility of a cycle Description of Carnot cycle, Otto cycle, Diesel cycle, simple problems on efficiency, calculation for different cycles

Reasons for highest efficiency of Carnot cycle over all other cycles working between same temperature limits

#### 8. Air Compressors (05 Periods)

Functions of air compressor – uses of compressed air, type of air compressors Single stage reciprocating air compressor, its construction and working, representation of processes involved on P – V diagram, calculation of work done.

Rotary compressors – types, descriptive treatment of centrifugal compressor, axial flow compressor, vane type compressor

#### 9. Introduction to Heat Transfer (04 Periods)

Modes of heat transfer, Fourier’s law, steady state conduction, composite structures, Natural and forced convection, thermal radiation

#### 10. IC Engines (12 Periods)

Introduction, Working principle of two stroke and four stroke cycle, SI engines and CI engines, Otto cycle, diesel cycle and dual cycle, Location and functions of various parts of IC engines and materials used for them. Testing of IC

Engines: Engine power – indicated and brake power, Efficiency – mechanical, thermal. relative and volumetric, Methods of finding indicated and brake power, Morse test for petro1 engine, Heat balance sheet, simple numerical problems, Concept of pollutants in SI and CI engines, pollution control, norms for two or four wheelers – EURO – 1, EURO – 2.

#### 11. Steam Turbines and Steam Condensers (08 Periods)

Function and use of steam turbine, Steam nozzles – types and applicationsSteam turbines – impulse, reaction, construction and working principle Governing of steam turbines, Function of a steam condenser, elements of condensing plant, Classification – jet condenser, surface condenser, Cooling pond and cooling towers

#### 12. Gas Turbines and Jet Propulsion (08 Periods)

Classification, open cycle gas turbine and closed cycle gas turbine, comparison of gas turbines with reciprocating IC engines, applications and limitations of gas turbine. Open cycle constant pressure gas turbines – general layout, PV and TS diagram and working of gas turbine. Closed cycle gas turbines, PV and TS diagram and working. Principle of operation of ram-jet engine and turbo jet engine – application of jet engines

### COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING AND 3D MODELLING

#### 1. Introduction to AutoCAD commands (6 drawing sheets)

• 1.1 Concept of AutoCAD, Tool bars in Auto CAD, coordinate system, snaps, Grid, and ortho mode (Absolute, Relative and Polar)
• 1.2 Drawing commands – point, line, arc, circle, ellipse, parabola.
• 1.3 Editing commands – scale, erase, copy, stretch, lengthen and explode.
• 1.4 Dimensioning and placing text in drawing area
• 1.5 Sectioning and hatching
• 1.6 Inquiry for different parameters of drawing entity
• 1.7 Create layers within a drawing
• 1.8 Specifying Geometrical Dimensioning & Tolerancing (GD&T) parameters in drawing

#### 2. Detail and assembly drawing of the following using AUTOCAD (4 sheets)

• 2.1 Plummer Block
• 2.2 Wall Bracket
• 2.3 Stepped pulley, V-belt pulley
• 2.4 Flanged coupling
• 2.5 Machine tool Holder (Three views)
• 2.6 Screw jack or knuckle joint
• 2.7 Foot step bearing

ISO Commands, User Co-ordinate System, View points, Viewports Elevation, World Co-ordinate System X/Y/Z Filter

Drawings of following on computer:

• – Cone
• – Cylinder
• – Isometric view of objects

#### 4. Introduction to Solid works

Introduction to Sketcher: Sketch Entities, Sketch Tools, Blocks, Dimensioning

##### 4.1 Part modeling (4 models)
•  Part Modeling Tools:-
• 4.1.1 Creating reference planes
• 4.1.2 Creating Extrude features, Creating Revolve, Creating Swept features-
• 4.1.3 Creating Loft features
• 4.1.4 Creating Reference – points, axis, coordinates
• 4.1.5 Creating curves
• 4.1.6 Creating Fillet features
• 4.1.7 Inserting Hole types
• 4.1.8 Creating Chamfer
• 4.1.9 Creating Shell
• 4.1.10 Creating Rib
• 4.1.11 Creating Pattern Advanced Modeling Tools
• 4.1.12 Inserting Fastening features,
• 4.1.13 Environment& Utilities – Working with views and manipulating views,
##### 4.2 Assembly (4 models)

Assembly Modeling Tools:-

Introduction to Assembly Modeling & Approaches – Top down and Bottom up approach, Applying Standard Mates- Coincident, Parallel, Perpendicular, Tangent, Concentric, Lock, Distance, Angle. Applying Advanced Mates – Symmetric, Width, Path Mate, Linear/Linear Coupler, Limit Mate. Applying Mechanical Mates – Cam, Hinge, Gear,

Rack Pinion, Screw, and Universal Joint. Manipulating Components – Replacing Components, Rotating Components, Move Components, Collision Detection, Physical Dynamics, Dynamic Clearance, Detecting Interference Creating Pattern – Assembly Pattern, Mirror, Creating Explode Views

• 1. Lathe tool past assembly
• 2. Shaper tool assembly
• 3. Valve assembly
• 4. Screw Jack

### WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY

#### 1. Welding (14 Periods)

##### 1.1 Welding Process

Principle of welding, Classification of welding processes, Advantages and limitations of welding, Industrial applications of welding, Welding positions andtechniques, symbols. Safety precautions in welding.

##### 1.2 Gas Welding

Principle of operation, Types of gas welding flames and their applications, Gas welding equipment – Gas welding torch, Oxy acetylene cutting torch, Blow pipe,Pressure regulators, Filler rods and fluxes

##### 1.3 Arc Welding

Principle of operation, Arc welding machines and equipment, A.C. and D.C. arc welding, Effect of polarity, current regulation and voltage regulation, Electrodes: Classification, B.I.S. specification and selection, Flux for arc welding.

Requirements of pre heating, post heating of electrodes and work piece. Welding defects and their testing methods.

##### 1.4 Other Welding Processes

Resistance welding: Principle, advantages, limitations, working and applications of spot welding, seam welding, projection welding and percussion welding, Atomic hydrogen welding, Shielded metal arc welding, submerged arc welding, Welding distortion, welding defects, methods of controlling welding defects and inspection of welded joints. Welding defects and inspection.

##### 1.5 Modern Welding Methods

Methods, Principle of operation, advantages, disadvantages and applications of, Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, other welding process, Metal inert gas (MIG) welding, Thermit welding, Electro slag welding, Electron beam welding, Ultrasonic welding, Laser beam welding, Robotic welding

#### 2. Pattern Making (10 Periods)

Types of pattern, Pattern material, Pattern allowances, Pattern codes as per B.I.S., Introduction to cores, core boxes and core materials, Core making procedure, Core prints, positioning of cores

#### 3. Moulding and Casting (14 Periods)

##### 3.1 Moulding Sand

Properties of moulding sand, their impact and control of properties viz.permeability, refractoriness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, strength, flow ability, collapsibility, Various types of moulding sand,Testing of moulding sand. Safety precautions in foundry.

##### 3.2 Mould Making

Types of moulds, Step involved in making a mould, Molding boxes, hand tools used for mould making, Molding processes: Bench molding, floor molding, pit molding and machine molding, Molding machines squeeze machine, jolt squeeze machine and sand slinger.

##### 3.3 Casting Processes

Charging a furnace, melting and pouring both ferrous and non ferrous metals, cleaning of castings, Principle, working and applications of Die casting: hot chamber and cold chamber, Investment and lost wax process, centrifugal casting.

##### 3.4 Gating and Risering System

Elements of gating system, Pouring basin, sprue, runner, gates, Types of risers, location of risers, Directional solidification

##### 3.5 Melting Furnaces

Construction and working of Pit furnace, Cupola furnace, Crucible furnace – tilting type, Electric furnace

##### 3.6 Casting Defects

Different types of casting defects, Testing of defects: radiography, magnetic particle inspection and ultrasonic inspection.

#### 4. Metal Farming Process (10 Periods)

• 4.1 Press Working- Types of presses, type of dies, selection of press die, die material. Press Operations-Shearing, piercing trimming, punching, notching, shaving, gearing, embossing, stamping.
• 4.2 Forging- Open die forging, closed die gorging, Press forging, upset forging, swaging, up setters, roll forging, Cold and hot forging.
• 4.3 Rolling- Elementary theory of rolling, Types of rolling mills, Thread rolling, roll passes, Rolling defects and remedies.
• 4.4 Extrusion and Drawing- Type of extrusion- Hot and Cold, Direct and indirect, pipe drawing, tube drawing, wire drawing.

#### 5. Plastic Processing (08 Periods)

•  5.1 Industrial use of plastics, situation where used.
• 5.2 Injection moulding-principle, working of injection moulding machine.
• 5.3 Compression moulding-principle, and working of compression moudling machine.
• 5.4 Potential and limitations in the use of plastics