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civil 1st semester syllabus
civil 1st semester syllabus 2022

Table of Contents

Civil 1st semester Syllabus

Sr. No.Book list 2022
1Communication Skills-1
2Applied Mathematics-1
3Applied Physics-1
4Applied Chemistry
5Engineering Drawing-1
6Construction Material
7General Workshop Practice-1
Civil 1st semester book list 2022


1. Basics of Communication

  • 1.1Definition and process of communication
  • 1.2 Types of communication – formal and informal, oral and written, verbal and non-verbal
  • 1.3 Communications barriers and how to overcome them
  • 1.4 Barriers to Communication, Tools of Communication

2 Application of Grammar

  • 2.1 Parts of Speech (Noun, verb, adjective, adverb) and modals
  • 2.2 Sentences and its types
  • 2.3 Tenses
  • 2.4 Active and Passive Voice
  • 2.5 Punctuation
  • 2.6 Direct and Indirect Speech

3 Reading Skill

Unseen passage for comprehension (one word substitution, prefixes, suffixes, antonyms, synonyms etc. based upon the passage to be covered under this topic)

4 Writing Skill

  • 4.1 Picture composition
  • 4.2 Writing paragraph
  • 4.3 Notice writing


1. Algebra – I

  • 1.1 Series : AP and GP; Sum, nth term, Mean
  • 1.2 Binomial theorem for positive, negative and fractional index (without proof). Application of Binomial theorem.
  • 1.3 Determinants : Elementary properties of determinant of order 2 and 3, Multiplication system of algebraic equation, Consistency of equation, Crammer’s rule

2. Algebra- II

  • 2.1 Vector algebra : Dot and Cross product, Scaler and vector triple product.
  • 2.2 Complex number. Complex numbers, Representation, Modulus and amplitude Demoivre theorem, its application in solving algebraic equations, Mod. function and its properties..

3. Trigonometry

  • 3.1 Relation between sides and angles of a triangle : Statement of various formulae
  • showing relationship between sides and angle of a triangle.
  • 3.2 Inverse circular functions: Simple case only

4. Differential Calculus – I

  • 4.1 Functions, limits, continuity, – functions and their graphs, range and domain, elementary methods of finding limits (right and left), elementary test for continuity and differentiability.
  • 4.2 Methods of finding derivative, Trigonometric functions, exponential function,Function of a function, Logaritimic differentiation, Differentiation of Inversetrigonometric function, Differentiation of implicit functions.

5. Differential Calculus – II

  • 5.1 Higher order derivatives, Leibnitz theorem (without proof). Simple applications.
  • 5.2 Application – Finding Tangents, Normal, Points of Maxima/Minima, Increasing/Decreasing functions, Rate, Measure, velocity, Acceleration, Errors and approximation.


1. Units and Dimensions

  • 1.1 Need of Measurement in engineering and science, unit of a physical quantities – fundamental and derived units, systems of units (FPS, CGS and SI units)
  • 1.2 Dimensions and dimensional formulae of physical quantities.
  • 1.3 Principle of homogeneity of dimensions
  • 1.4 Dimensional equations and their applications, conversion of numerical values of physical quantities from one system of units into another, checking the correctness of physical equations and deriving relations among various physical quantities
  • 1.5 Limitations of dimensional analysis
  • 1.6 Error in measurement, accuracy and precision of instruments, random and systematic errors, absolute error, relative error, and percentage error, Estimation of probable errors in the results of measurement (combination of errors in addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and powers), rules for representing significant figures in calculation.
  • 1.7 Application of units and dimensions in measuring length, diameter, circumference, volume, surface area etc. of metallic and non metallic blocks, wires, pipes etc (at least two each).


2. Force and Motion

  • 2.1 Scalar and vector quantities – examples, representation of vector, types of vectors
  • 2.2 Addition and Subtraction of Vectors, Triangle and Parallelogram law(Statement only), Scalar and Vector Product.
  • 2.3 Resolution of Vectors and its application to lawn roller.
  • 2.4 Force, Momentum, Statement and Derivation of Conservation of linear momentum, its applications such as recoil of gun.
  • 2.5 Impulse and its Applications
  • 2.6 Circular motion (Uniform and Non-uniform), definition of angulardisplacement, angular velocity, angular acceleration, frequency, time period.
  • 2.7 Relation between linear and angular velocity, linear acceleration and angular acceleration (related numerical)
  • 2.8 Central force, Expression and Applications of Centripetal and centrifugal forces with examples such as banking of roads and bending of cyclist, Principle of centrifuge.
  • 2.9 Application of various forces in lifts, cranes, large steam engines and turbines

3. Work, Power and Energy

  • 3.1 Work: and its units, examples of zero work, positive work and negative work, conservative and non-conservative force,
  • 3.2 Friction: modern concept, types, laws of limiting friction, Coefficient of friction and its Engineering Applications.
  • 3.3 Work done in moving an object on horizontal and inclined plane for rough and plane surfaces with its applications
  • 3.4 Energy and its units: Kinetic energy and potential energy with examples and their derivation, work energy theorem.
  • 3.5 Principle of conservation of mechanical energy for freely falling bodies, examples of transformation of energy.
  • 3.6 Power and its units, calculation of power in numerical problems
  • 3.7 Application of Friction in brake system of moving vehicles, bicycle, scooter, car trains etc.

 4 Rotational Motion

  • 4.1 Concept of translatory and rotatory motions with examples
  • 4.2 Definition of torque with examples
  • 4.3 Angular momentum, Conservation of angular momentum (quantitative) and its examples
  • 4.4 Moment of inertia and its physical significance, radius of gyration for rigid body, Theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes (statements only), Moment of inertia of rod, disc, ring and sphere (hollow and solid) (Formulae only). Concept of Fly wheel.
  • 4.5 Rotational kinetic energy, Rolling of sphere on the slant plane
  • 4.6 Comparison of linear motion and rotational motion.
  • 4.7 Application of rotational motions in transport vehicles, and machines.

5 Motion of planets and satellites

  • 5.1 Gravitational force, Kepler’s law of planetary motion
  • 5.2 Acceleration due gravity and its variation
  • 5.3 Gravitational Potential and Gravitational potential energy
  • 5.4 Motion of satellite, orbital velocity and time period of satellite, Total energy
  • and Binding energy of a satellite, Escape energy and escape velocity
  • 5.5 Types of satellites, Geo-stationary satellite, semi-synchronous, polar satellite (concept only) and their uses in science and technology
  • 5.6 Concept of Black Holes

6. Properties of Matter

  •  6.1 Elasticity: definition of stress and strain, different types of modulii of elasticity, Hooke’s law, significance of stress strain curve
  • 6.2 Pressure: definition, its units, atmospheric pressure, gauge pressure, absolute pressure, Fortin’s Barometer and its applications
  • 6.3 Surface tension: concept, its units, angle of contact, Capillary action and determination of surface tension from capillary rise method, applications of surface tension, effect of temperature and impurity on surface tension
  • 6.4 Viscosity and coefficient of viscosity: Terminal velocity, Stoke’s law and effect of temperature on viscosity, application in hydraulic systems.
  • 6.5 Concept of fluid motion, stream line and turbulent flow, Reynold’s number Equation of continuity, Bernoulli’s Theorem and their applications.

7. Heat and Thermodynamics

  • 7.1 Difference between heat and temperature
  • 7.2 Modes of transfer of heat (Conduction, convection and radiation with examples)
  • 7.3 Different scales of temperature and their relationship
  • 7.4 Expansion of solids, liquids and gases, coefficient of linear, surface and cubical expansions and relation amongst them
  • 7.5 Heat conduction in a metal rod, Temperature gradient, Concept of Co-efficient of thermal conductivity, Uses and effects of Heat conduction in Daily life.
  • 7.6 Isothermal and Adibatic process
  • 7.7 Zeroth, First and second law of thermodynamics, Heat engine (concept Only), Carnot cycle.
  • 7.8 Application of various systems of thermometry in refrigeration and air-conditioning etc.


1. Atomic Structure, Periodic Table and Chemical Bonding

  • 1.1 Fundamental particles- mass and charges of electrons, protons and neutrons with names of the scientists who discovered these fundamental particles.
  • 1.2 Bohr’s model of atom and successes and limitations of atomic theory (qualitative treatment only).
  • 1.3 Atomic number, atomic mass number isotopes and isobars.
  • 1.4 Definition of orbit and orbitals, shapes of s and p orbitals only, quantum numbers and their significance,
  • 1.5 Aufbau’s principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule electronic configuration of elements with atomic number (Z) = 30 only. (Electronic configurations of elements with atomic number greater than 30 are excluded).
  • 1.6 Modern periodic law and periodic table, groups and periods, classification of elements into s, p, d and f blocks (periodicity in properties – excluded)
  • 1.7 Chemical bonding and cause of bonding and types such as ionic bond in NaCl sigma (σ) and pi (π) covalent bonds in H2, HCl, Cl2, elementary idea of hybridization in BeCl2, BF3, CH4, NH3 and H2O, VSEPR, Molecular orbital Theory
  • 1.8 States of Matter: Solid, Liquid & Gas, Metallic bonding- explanation with the help of electron gas (sea) model.

2. Fuelsand Lubricants

  • 2.1 Definition of fuel, classification of fuels, characteristics of good fuel, relative merits of gaseous, liquid and solid fuels
  • 2.2 Calorific value-higher calorific value, lower calorific value, determination of calorific value of solid or liquid fuel using Bomb calorimeter and numerical examples.
  • 2.3 Coal – types of coal and proximate analysis of coal
  • 2.4 Fuel rating – Octane number and Cetane number, fuel-structural influence on Octane and Cetane numbers
  • 2.5 Gaseous fuels – chemical composition, calorific value and applications of natural gas (CNG), LPG, producer gas, water gas and biogas.
  • 2.6 Elementary ideal on – hydrogen as future fuels, nuclear fuels.
  • 2.7 Lubricants: Definition and properties, mechanism, industrial application and its function in bearings
  • 2.8 Synthetic lubricants and cutting fluids.

3. Water

  • 3.1 Demonstration of water resources on Earth using pie chart.
  • 3.2 Classification of water – soft water and hard water, action of soap on hard water, types of hardness, causes of hardness, units of hardness – mg per liter (mgL-1) and part per million (ppm) and simple numerical, pH and buffer solutions and their applications.
  • 3.3 Disadvantages caused by the use of hard water in domestic and boiler feed water. Primming and foaming and caustic embrittlement in boilers.
  • 3.4 Removal of hardness -Permutit process and Ion-exchange process.
  • 3.5 Physico-Chemical methods for Water Quality Testing
    • a) Determination of pH using pH meter, total dissolved solids (TDS)
    • b) Testing and Estimation of- alkalinity, indicator their types and application total hardness by EDTA method and O’Hener’s Method. (chemical reaction of EDTA method are excluded).
    • c) Understanding of Indian Water Quality standards as per WHO
  • 3.6 Natural water sterilization by chlorine and UV radiation and reverse osmosis.
  • 3.7 Municipality waste water treatment. Definition of B.O.D and C.O.D.

4. Electrochemistry

 Redox Reaction, Electrode Potential, Nernst equation, Electrochemical cell (Galvanic and Electrobytes); Nernst equation.

5. Corrosion and its Control

  • 5.1 Definition of corrosion and factors affecting corrosion rate.
  • 5.2 Theories of
  •  a) Dry (chemical) corrosion- Pilling Bedworth rule
  •  b) Wet corrosion in acidic atmosphere by hydrogen evolution mechanism
  • 5.3 Definition of passivity and galvanic series
  • 5.4 Corrosion control:
    • a) Metal coatings – Cathodic protection, Cementation on Base Metal Steel –Application of Metal Zn (Sheradizing),Cr (Chromozing) and Al (Calorizing), Sacrificial protection and impressed current voltage
    • b) Inorganic coatings – Anodizing and phosphating,
    • c) Organic coatings – use of paints varnishes and enamels
    • d) Internal corrosion preventive measures- alloying (with reference to passivating, neutralizing and inhibition) and heat treatment (quenching, annealing)

6. Organic compounds, Polymers and Plastics

  • 6.1 Classification of organic compounds and IUPAC Nomenclature
  • 6.2 Definition of polymer, monomer and degree of polymerization
  • 6.3 Brief introduction to addition and condensation polymers with suitable examples (PE, PS, PVC, Teflon, Nylon -66 and Bakelite)
  • 6.4 Definition of plastics, thermo plastics and thermo setting plastics with suitableexamples, distinctions between thermo and thermo setting plastics
  • 6.5 Applications of polymers in industry and daily life


1. Introduction to Engineering Drawing

  • 1.1 Introduction to drawing instruments, materials, layout and sizes of drawingsheets and drawing boards.
  • 1.2 Different types of lines in Engineering drawing as per BIS specifications
  • 1.3 Practice of vertical, horizontal and inclined lines, geometrical figures such as triangles, rectangles, circles, ellipses and curves, hexagonal, pentagon with the help of drawing instruments.
  • 1.4 Free hand and instrumental lettering (Alphabet and numerals) – upper case (Capital Letter), single stroke, vertical and inclined at 75 degree, series of 5,8,12 mm of free hand and instrumental lettering of height 25 to 35 mm in the ratio of 7:4

2. Dimensioning Technique

  • 2.1 Necessity of dimensioning, method and principles of dimensioning (mainly
  • theoretical instructions)
  • 2.2 Dimensioning of overall sizes, circles, threaded holes, chamfered surfaces,
  • angles, tapered surfaces, holes, equally spaced on P.C.D., counter sunk holes,
  • counter bored holes, cylindrical parts, narrow spaces and gaps, radii, curves
  • and arches

3. Scales

  • 3.1 Scales –their needs and importance (theoretical instructions), type of scales, definition of R.F. and length of scale
  • 3.2 Drawing of plain and diagonal scales

4. Orthographic Projections

  •  4.1 Theory of orthographic projections (Elaborate theoretical instructions)
  •  4.2 Projection of Points in different quadrant
  •  4.3 Projection of Straight Line (1st and 3rd angle)
  •  4.3.1. Line parallel to both the planes
  •  4.3.2. Line perpendicular to any one of the reference plane
  •  4.3.3. Line inclined to any one of the reference plane.
  •  4.4 Projection of Plane – Different lamina like square, rectangular, triangular and circle inclined to one plane, parallel and perpendicular to another plane in 1st angle only
  • 4.5 Three views of orthographic projection of different objects. (At least one sheet in 3rd angle)
  • 4.6 Identification of surfaces

5 Projection of Solid (02 sheets)

  •  5.1. Definition and salient features of Solid
  •  5.2. Types of Solid (Polyhedron and Solid of revolution)
  •  5.3 To make projections, sources, Top view, Front view and Side view of various types of Solid.

6. Sections (02 sheets)

  • 6.1 Importance and salient features
  • 6.2 Drawing of full section, half section, partial or broken out sections, Offset sections, revolved sections and removed sections.
  • 6.3 Convention sectional representation of various materials, conventional breaks for shafts, pipes, rectangular, square, angle, channel, rolled sections
  • 6.4 Orthographic sectional views of different objects.

7. Isometric Views (02 sheets)

  •  7.1 Fundamentals of isometric projections and isometric scale.
  •  7.2 Isometric views of combination of regular solids like cylinder, cone, cube and prism.

8. Common Symbols and Conventions used in Engineering

  •  8.1 Civil Engineering sanitary fitting symbols
  •  8.2 Electrical fitting symbols for domestic interior installations.

*9. Introduction to AutoCAD (02 sheets)

 Basic introduction and operational instructions of various commands in AutoCAD. At least two sheets on AutoCAD of cube, cuboid, cone, pyramid, truncated cone and pyramid, sphere and combination of above solids.

* Auto CAD drawing will be evaluated internally by sessional marks and not by final theory paper.


1. Introduction to Computers and Peripherals.

Components of Computer, Types of Computer, CPU, RAM, ROM, Hard disk, USB, Flash drive, CD, DVD,Blue ray, Keyboard, Mouse, Monitor, LCD, Printer, Plotter, Scanner, Modem, Sound Cards, Speakers, CMOS battery, Sharing of Printers.

2. Operation System and Application Software

 System Software, Application Software, Virtualization Software, Utility Software, MS Office/Open Office/Libreoffice, Working with window, Desktop components, Menu bars, creating shortcut of program. Installation of Application softwares, Antivirus and Drivers.

3. Word Processing, Spreadsheet and Presentation

Usage and creation of word document, spreadsheets and presentation, Google Suits (Google drive, google sheet, google doc. Google presentation).

4. Internet

Basics of Networking – LAN, WAN, Wi-Fi technologies, Concept of IP Addrsses, DNS, Search Engines, e-mail, Browsing and cyber laws.



1. Building Stones: (06 periods)

  •  1.1 Classification of Rocks: (General Review)
    • 1.1.1 Geological classification: Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks
    • 1.1.2 Chemical classification; Calcareous, argillaceous and siliceous rocks
    • 1.1.3 Physical classification: Unstratified, startified and foliated rocks
  • 1.2 General characteristics of stones – Marble, Kota stone, Granite, Sand, Trap, Basalt stone, Lime stone and Slate
  • 1.3 Requirements of good building stones
  • 1.4 Identification of common building stones
  • 1.5 Various uses of stones in construction
  • 1.6 Quarrying of stones by blasting and its effect on environment

2. Bricks and Tiles (12 periods)

  •  2.1 Introduction to bricks
  • 2.2 Raw materials for brick manufacturing and properties of good brick making earth
  • 2.3 Manufacturing of bricks
    • 2.3.1 Preparation of clay (manual/mechanically)
    •  2.3.2 Moulding: hand moulding and machine moulding brick table; drying of bricks, burning of bricks, types of kilns (Bull’s Trench Kiln and Hoffman’s Kiln), process of burning, size and weight of standard brick; traditional brick, refractory brick, CLC, AAC, Paver blocks, clay-flyash bricks, sun dried bricks, only line diagram of kilns
  • 2.4 Classification and specifications of bricks as per BIS: 1077
  • 2.5 Testing of common building bricks as per BIS: 3495 Compressive strength, water absorption – hot and cold water test, efflorescence, Dimensional tolerance, soundness
  • 2.6 Tiles
    • 2.6.1 Building tiles; Types of tiles-wall, ceiling, roofing and flooring tiles
    • 2.6.2 Ceramic, terrazo and PVC tiles, : their properties and uses,
    • 2.6.3 Vitrified tiles, Paver blocks, interlocking tiles
  •  2.7 Stacking of bricks and tiles at site

3. Cement (16 periods)

  • 3.1 Introduction, raw materials, flow diagram of manufacturing of cement
  • 3.2 Various types of Cements, their uses and testing: Ordinary portland cement, rapid hardening cement, low heat cement, white and coloured cement, portland pozzolana cement
  • 3.3 Properties of cement

4. Timber and Wood Based Products (06 periods)

  • 4.1 Identification and uses of different types of timber: Teak, Deodar, Shisham, Sal, Mango, Kail, Chir, Fir, Hollock, Champ
  • 4.2 Market forms of converted timber as per BIS Code
  • 4.3 Seasoning of timber: Purpose, methods of seasoning as per BIS Code
  • 4.4 Properties of timber and specifications of structural timber
  • 4.5 Defects in timber, decay in timber
  • 4.6 Preservation of timber and methods of treatment as per BIS
  • 4.7 Other wood based products, their brief description of manufacture and uses:
  • laminated board, gypsum board, block board, fibre board, hard board,
  • sunmica, plywood, veneers, nu-wood and study of the brand name and cost of the wood based products available in the market, Cement Panel Board,Moulded Doors.

5. Paints and Varnishes (03 periods)

5.1 Introduction, purpose and use of paints

5.2 Types, ingredients, properties and uses of oil paints, water paints and cement paints

5.3 Covering capacity of various paints

5.4 Types, properties and uses of varnishes

5.5 Trade name of different products.

6. Metals (03 periods)

  • 6.1 Ferrous metals: Composition, properties and uses of cast iron, mild steel, HYSD steel, high tension steel as per BIS.
  • 6.2 Commercial forms of ferrous, metals.
  • 6.3 Aluminium & Stainless Steel.

7. Miscellaneous Materials (06 periods)

  • 7.1 Plastics – Introduction and uses of various plastic products in buildings such as doors, water tanks and PVC pipes
  • 7.2 Fibre Sheets and their size and uses
  • 7.3 Types and uses of insulating materials for sound and thermal insulation
  • 7.4 Construction chemicals like water proofing compound, epoxies, polymers
  • 7.5 Water proofing, termite proofing and fire resistance materials – types and uses
  • 7.6 Materials used in interior decoration works like POP, methods of doing POP,PVC panelling
  • NOTE: A field visit may be planned to explain and show the relevant things


The following shops are included in the syllabus:

  • 1. Carpentry Shop
  • 2. Painting and Polishing Shop
  • 3. Electrical Shop
  • 4. Welding Shop
  • 5. Plumbing Shop


  • 1.1 General Shop Talk
    • 1.1.1 Name and use of raw materials used in carpentry shop : wood & alternative materials
    • 1.1.2 Names, uses, care and maintenance of hand tools such as different types of Saws, C-Clamp, Chisels, Mallets, Carpenter’s vices, Marking gauges, Try-squares, Rulers and other commonly used tools and materials used in carpentry shop by segregating as cutting tools, supporting tools, holding tools , measuring tools etc.
    • 1.1.3 Specification of tools used in carpentry shop.
    • 1.1.4 Different types of Timbers, their properties, uses & defects.
    • 1.1.5 Seasoning of wood.
    •  1.2. Practice
    • 1.2.1 Practices for Basic Carpentry Work
    • 1.2.2 Sawing practice using different types of saws
    • 1.2.3 Assembling jack plane — Planning practice including sharpening of jack plane cutter
    • 1.2.4 Chiselling practice using different types of chisels including sharpening of chisel
    • 1.2.5 Making of different types of wooden pin and fixing methods. Marking measuring and inspection of jobs.
  • 1.3 Job Practice
    •  Job 1 Marking, sawing, planning and chiselling and their practice
    •  Job II Half Lap Joint (cross, L or T – any one)
    •  Job III Mortise and Tenon joint (T-Joint)
    •  Job IV Dove tail Joint (Lap or Bridle Joint)
  • 1.4. Demonstration of job showing use of Rip Saw, Bow saw and Tenon saw, method of sharpening various saws.


  • 2.1. Introduction of paints, varnishes, Reason for surface preparation, Advantages of Painting, other method of surface coating ie. Electroplating etc.
  • 2.2. Job Practice
    • Job 1: To prepare a wooden surface for painting apply primer on one side and to paint the same side. To prepare french polish for wooden surface and polish the other side.
    • Job II: To prepare metal surface for painting, apply primer and paint the same.
    • Job III: To prepare a metal surface for spray painting, first spray primer and paint the same by spray painting gun and compressor system.
  • The sequence of polishing will be as follows:
    • i) Abrasive cutting by leather wheel
    • ii) Polishing with hard cotton wheel and with polishing material
    • iii) Buffing with cotton wheel or buff wheel.


  • 3.1 Study, demonstration and identification of common electrical materials with standard ratings and specifications such as wires, cables, switches, fuses, cleats, clamps and allied items, tools and accessories.
  • 3.2 Study of electrical safety measures and protective devices.
    • Job I Identification of phase, Neutral and Earth wires for connection to domestic electrical appliances and their connections to three pin plugs.
    • Job II Carrying out house wiring circuits using fuse, switches, sockets, ceiling rose etc. in batten or P.V.C. casing-caping.
  • 3.3 Study of common electrical appliances such as auto electric iron, electric kettle, ceiling/table fan, desert cooler etc.
  • 3.4 Introduction to the construction of lead acid battery and its working.
    • Job III Installation of battery and connecting two or three batteries in series and parallel.
  • 3.5 Introduction to battery charger and its functioning.
    •  Job IV Charging a battery and testing with hydrometer and cell tester


  • 4.1 Introduction and importance of welding as compared to other material joining processes. Specifications and type of welding machines, classification and coding of electrodes, welding parameters, welding joints and welding positions. Materials to be welded, safety precautions.
  • 4.2 Job Practice
    • Job I Practice of striking arc (Minimum 4 beads on 100 mm long M.S. flat).
    • Job II Practice of depositing beads on plate at different current levels. (Minimum 4 beads on M.S. plate at four setting of current level).
    •  Job III Preparation of lap joint using arc welding process.
    • Job IV Preparation of T-joint using gas welding or arc welding on 100 mm x 6 mm MS Flat


  • 5.1. Use of personal protective equipments, safety precautions while working and cleaning of shop.
  • 5.2. Introduction and demonstration of tools, equipment and machines used in plumbing shop.
  • 5.3. Introduction of various pipes and pipe fittings of elbow, nipple, socket, union etc.
  • 5.4. Job Practice
    •  Job 1 : Preparation of job using elbow, bend and nipple
    •  Job II: Preparation of job using Union, Tap, Plug and Socket.
    •  Job III: Threading practice on pipe with die
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