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## electrical 2nd semester syllabus Exclusive for Diploma 2022

Sr. No. | Book list 2022 |

1 | APPLIED MATHEMATICS – II |

2 | APPLIED PHYSICS – II |

3 | BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING |

4 | BASICS OF MECHANICAL AND CIVIL ENGINEERING |

5 | Analog Electronics |

6 | GENERAL WORKSHOP PRACTICE –II |

## APPLIED MATHEMATICS – II

### 1. Integral Calculus – I

Methods of Indefinite Integration

- 1.1 Integration by substitution.
- 1.2 Integration by rational function.
- 1.3 Integration by partial fraction.
- 1.4 Integration by parts.
- 1.5 Integration of special function

### 2. Integral Calculus – II

- 2.1 Meaning and properties of definite integrals, Evaluation of definite integrals.
- 2.2 Application : Length of simple curves, Finding areas bounded by simple curves Volume of solids of revolution, centre of mean of plane areas.
- 2.3 Simposns 1/3rd and Simposns3/8th rule and Trapezoidal Rule : their application in simple cases. Numerical solutions of algebraic equations; Bisections method, Regula-Falsi method, Newton-Raphson’s method(without proof), Numerical solutions of simultaneous equations; Gauss elimination method(without proof)

### 3. Co-ordinate Geometry (2 Dimension)

3.1 Circle Equation of circle in standard form. Centre – Radius form, Diameter form, Two intercept form.

### 4. Co-ordinate Geometry (3 Dimension)

4.1 Straight lines and planes in space Distance between two points in space, direction cosine and direction ratios, Finding equation of a straight line (without proof)

## APPLIED PHYSICS – II

### 1. Wave motion and its applications

- 1.1 Wave motion, transverse and longitudinal wave motion with examples, sound and light waves, relationship among wave velocity, frequency and wave length and its application
- 1.2 Wave equation y = r sin wt, phase, phase difference, principle of superposition of waves
- 1.3 Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM): definition and characteristic, expression for displacement, velocity, acceleration, time period, frequency in S.H.M., Energy
- of a body executing S. H. M., simple pendulum, concept of simple harmonic progressive wave,
- 1.4 Free, Damped and forced oscillations, Resonance with examples, Q-factor
- 1.5 Definition of pitch, loudness, quality and intensity of sound waves, intensity level, Echo and reverberation, Sabine formula for reverberation time(without derivation), coefficient of absorption of sound, methods to control reverberation
- time and their applications, Accoustics of building defects and remedy.
- 1.6 Ultrasonics –production, detection, properties and applications in engineering and medical applications.

### 2. Wave Optics (6 periods)

- 2.1 Dual nature of light, wave theory of light, laws of reflection and refraction,
- Snell’s law, Power of lens, magnification.
- 2.2 Two-Source Interference, Double-Slit interference, Interference due to thin films,
- Fresnel’s biprism.
- 2.3 use of interference making highly efficient solar panel.
- 2.4 diffraction, Single Slit diffraction, Intensity calculation etc
- 2.5 Polarization of electromagnetic waves, polarizing sheets, polarizing by Reflection (Brewser’s law), Malus law, use of polariods.

### 3. Electrostatics

- 3.1 Concept of charge, Coulombs law, Electric field of point charges, Electric lines of force and their properties, Electric flux, Electric potential and potential difference.
- 3.2 Gauss law of electrostatics: Application of Gauss law to find electric field intensity of straight charged conductor, plane charged sheet and charged sphere.
- 3.3 Capacitor and its working principle, Capacitance and its units. Capacitance of
- parallel plate capacitor. Series and parallel combination of capacitors (numericals), charging and discharging of a capacitor.
- 3.4 Dielectric and its effect on capacitance, dielectric break down.
- 3.5 Application of electrostatics in electrostatic precipitation of microbes and moisture separation from air and gases in industry for pollution control (Brief explanation only)

### 4. Current Electricity (12 periods)

- 4.1 Electric Current, Resistance, Specific Resistance, Conductance, Specific Conductance, Series and Parallel combination of Resistances. Factors affecting Resistance, Colour coding of carbon Resistances, Ohm’s law. Superconductivity.
- 4.2 Kirchhoff’s laws, Wheatstone bridge and its applications (meter bridge and slide wire bridge)
- 4.3 Concept of terminal potential difference and Electro motive force (EMF), potentiometer.
- 4.4 Heating effect of current, Electric power, Electric energy and its units (related numerical problems), Advantages of Electric Energy over other forms of energy
- 4.5 Examples of application of DC circuits in various electrical and electronics equipment such as C.R.O, T.V., Audio-Video System, Computers etc.

### 5. Magneto Statics and Electromagnetism

- 5.1 Magnetic poles, force on a moving charge, circulating charges, force on a current carrying wire, Hall effect, torque on a current loop.
- 5.2 Magnetic field due to moving charge(Biot-Savart Law), due to current (Biot-
- Savart Law), parallel currents, field of a solenoid, Ampere’s law.
- 5.3 Faraday’s law, Lenz’ law, motional emf, induced electric fields.
- 5.4 Magnetic dipole and force on a magnetic dipole in a non-uniform field,
- Magnetization, Gauss’ law for magnetism.
- 5.5 Types of magnetic materials. Dia, para and ferromagnetic materials with their properties,
- 5.6 Application of electromagnetism in ac/dc motors and generators.

### 6. Semiconductor physics

- 6.1 Types of materials (insulator, semi conductor, conductor), intrinsic and extrinsic
- semiconductors, p-n junction diode and its V-I characteristics
- 6.2 Diode as rectifier – half wave and full wave rectifier (centre taped),
- 6.3 Semiconductor transistor, pnp and npn (concepts only)
- 6.4 Application of semiconductor diodes (Zener, LED) and that of transistor as
- amplifier and oscillator.

### 7. Modern Physics

- 7.1 Lasers: concept of energy levels, ionizations and excitation potentials; spontaneous and stimulated emission; laser and its characteristics, population inversion, Types of lasers; Ruby and He-Ne lasers, engineering and medical applications of lasers.
- 7.2 Fibre optics: Total internal reflection and its applications, Critical angle and conditions for total internal reflection, introduction to optical fibers, light propagation, types, acceptance angle and numerical aperture, types and
- applications of optical fibre in communication.
- 7.3 Introduction to nanotechnology,nanoparticles and nano materials,

## BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

### 1. Overview of DC Circuits

- 1.1 Definition of basic terms, such as current, EMF, Potential Difference (PD); Ohm’s Law and its limitations; Factors affecting resistors and capacitors; simple problems on series and parallel combinations of resistors with their wattage considerations.
- 1.2 Application of Kirchhoff’s current law and Kirchhoff’s voltage law to simple circuits. Star – Delta connections and their conversion.

### 2. DC Circuit Theorems

Superposition principle, Maximum Power Transfer Theorem, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, application of network theorems in solving D.C. circuit problems.

### 3. Voltage and Current Sources

- 3.1 Concept of voltage source, symbol and graphical representation characteristics
- of ideal and practical sources.
- 3.2 Concept of current sources, symbol, characteristics and graphical representation
- of ideal and practical current sources.
- 3.3 Inter Conversion of Voltage-Source and Current Source.

### 4. Electro Magnetic Induction

- 4.1 Concept of electro-magnetic field produced by flow of electric current, magnetic circuit, concept of magneto-motive force (MMF), flux, reluctance, permeability, analogy between electric and magnetic circuit.\
- 4.2 Faraday’s laws of electro-magnetic induction, principles of self and mutual
- induction, self and mutually induced e.m.f, simple numerical problems.
- 4.3 Concept of current growth, decay and time constant in an inductive (RL) circuit.
- 4.4 Energy stored in an inductor, series and parallel combination of inductors.

### 5. Batteries

- 5.1 Basic idea of primary and secondary cells
- 5.2 Construction, working principle and applications of Lead-Acid, Nickel-
- Cadmium and Silver-Oxide batteries
- 5.3 Charging methods used for lead-acid battery (accumulator)
- 5.4 Care and maintenance of lead-acid battery
- 5.5 Series and parallel connections of batteries
- 5.6 General idea of solar cells, solar panels and their applications
- 5.7 Introduction to maintenance free batteries

### 6. AC Fundamentals (10 periods)

- 6.1 Concept of alternating quantities
- 6.2 Difference between ac and dc
- 6.3 Concepts of: cycle, frequency, time period, amplitude, instantaneous value, average value, r.m.s. value, maximum value, form factor and peak factor.
- 6.4 Representation of sinusoidal quantities by phasor diagrams.
- 6.5 Equation of sinusoidal wave form for an alternating quantity and its derivation
- 6.6 Effect of alternating voltage applied to a pure resistance, pure inductance and pure capacitance.

### 7. AC Circuits

- 7.1 Concept of inductive and capacitive reactance
- 7.2 Alternating voltage applied to resistance and inductance in series.
- 7.3 Alternating voltage applied to resistance and capacitance in series.
- 7.4 Introduction to series and parallel resonance and its conditions
- 7.5 Power in pure resistance, inductance and capacitance, power in combined RLC circuits. Power factor, active and reactive power and their significance, definition and significance of power factor.
- 7.6 Definition of conductance, susceptance, admittance, impedance and their units
- 7.7 Introduction to polyphase a.c. systems, advantages of polyphase system oversingle phase system. Relations between line and phase value of voltages and currents for star and delta connections and their phasor diagram, power in polyphase circuits.

### 8. Various Types of Power Plants

8.1 Brief explanation of principle of power generation practices in thermal, hydro and nuclear power stations and their comparative study. A Visit to a nearby Power Station(s) may be organized for better understanding and exposure.

8.2 Elementary block diagram of above mentioned power stations

## BASICS OF MECHANICAL AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

### SECTION A – MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

#### 1. Thermal Engineering

- 1.1 Sources of Energy Definition, Concept of thermodynamic system and surroundings, Closed system, Open system, Isolated system, Thermodynamics definition of work.Zeroth law of thermodynamics Basic ideas, conventional and nonconventional forms- Thermal, Hydel, Tidal, wind, Solar, Biomass and Nuclear and their uses.
- 1.2 Fuels & Combustion: Combustion of fuels- their higher and lower calorific values. Combustion equations for carbon, sulphur, hydrogen and their simple compounds. Calculation of minimum amount of air required for complete combustion. Combustion analysis n mass basis and on volume basis. Concept of excess air in a boiler furnace combustion. Heat carried away by flue gases. Analysis of flue gases by Orsat apparatus. Simple numerical problems Idea of specific properties of liquid fuels such as detonation, knock resistance
- (cetane and octane numbers), viscosity, solidification point, flash point and flame point.

#### 2. Machine Components

Brief idea of loading on machine components.

- (i) Pins, Cottor and Knuckle Joints.
- (ii) Keys, Key ways and spline on the shaft.
- (iii)Shafts, Collars, Cranks, Eccentrics.
- (iv) Couplings and Clutches.
- (v) Bearings-Plane, Bushed, Split-step, ball, Roller bearing, Journal bearing, Foot step bearing, thrust bearing, collar bearing and Special type bearings and their applications.
- (vi) Gears Different types of gears, gear trains and their use for transmission of motion. Determination of velocity ratio for spur gear trains; spur gear, single and double helical gears, Bevel gears, Mitre wheel, worms, Rack and Pinion. Simple and compound and epicyclic gear trains and their use. Definition of pitch and pitch circle & module.

- (vii) Springs Compression, Tension, Helical springs,Torsion springs, Leaf and Laminated springs. Their use and material.

#### 3. Lubrication

- Different lubrication system for lubricating the components of machines.
- Principle of working of wet sump and dry sump system of lubrication. ( Explain with simple line diagram). Selection of lubricant based on different application (Requirement with the help of manufacturer catalogue).

### SECTION B : CIVIL ENGINEERING

#### 4. Construction Materials

Properties and uses of various construction materials such as stones, bricks, lime, content and timber with their properties, physical/field testing, elements of brick masonry.

#### 5. Foundations

- 5.1 Bearing capacity of soil and its imporance
- 5.2 Types of various foundations and their salient features, suitability of various
- foundations for heavy, light and vibrating machines.

#### 6. Concrete

- Various ingredients of concrete, different grades of concrete, water cement ratio, workability, physical/field testing of concrete, mixing of concrete, placing and curing of concrete..

#### 7. RCC

- Basics of reinforced cement concrete and its use (elementary knowledge), introduction to various structural elements of a building.
- Note: While imparting instructions, teachers are expected to lay more emphasis on concepts and principles. It will be better if the classes for general engineering are conducted by organized demonstrations for explaining various concepts and principles.
- Note: While imparting instructions, teachers are expected to lay more emphasis on concepts and principles. It will be better if the classes for general engineering are conducted by organized demonstrations for explaining various concepts and principles.

## ANALOG ELECTRONICS

### 1. Semiconductor Diodes

- 1.1 PN Junction, mechanism of current flow in PN junction, drift and diffusion currents, depletion layer, potential barrier, effect of forward and reverse biasing in a PN junction. Concept of junction capacitance in forward and reverse biased conditions. Breakdown mechanism
- 1.2 Ideal diode, Semiconductor diode characteristics, static and dynamic resistance
- 1.3 Use of diode as half wave and full wave rectifiers (centre tapped and bridge type), relation between DC output and AC input voltage, efficiency of rectifier
- 1.4 Concept of ripples, filter circuits – shunt capacitor, series inductor, and pie (π) filters and their applications
- 1.5 Diode ratings/specifications
- 1.6 Various types of diodes such as zener diode, varactor diode, schottky diode, light emitting diode, tunnel diode, photo diode; their working characteristics and applications
- 1.7 Zener diode and its characteristics
- 1.8 Use of zener diode for voltage stabilization

### 2 Bi-polar Transistors

- 2.1 Concept of junction transistor, PNP and NPN transistors, their symbols and mechanism of current flow
- 2.2 Transistor configurations: common base (CB), common emitter (CE) and common collector (CC), current relation and their input/output characteristics; comparison of the three configurations

### 3. Transistor Biasing and Stabilization

- 3.1 Transistor biasing, its need, operating point, effect of temperature on the operating point of a transistor and need of stabilization of operating point.
- 3.2 Different biasing circuits, limitations, simple problems to calculate operating point in different biasing circuits. Use of Thevenin’s theorem to determine operating point
- 3.3 Concept of h-parameters of a transistor
- 3.4 Use of data book to know the parameters of a given transistor

### 4. Single-Stage Transistor Amplifiers

- 4.1 Single stage transistor amplifier circuit in CE configuration, function of each component
- 4.2 Working of single stage transistor amplifier, physical and graphical explanation, phase reversal
- 4.3 Concept of DC and AC load line
- 4.4 Voltage gain of single stage transistor amplifier using characteristics of the device
- 4.5 Concept of input and output impedance
- 4.6 AC equivalent circuit of single stage transistor amplifiers
- 4.7 Calculation of voltage gain using AC equivalent circuit
- 4.8 Frequency response of a single stage transistor amplifier

### 5. Multi-Stage Transistor Amplifiers

- 5.1 Need of multi-stage transistor amplifiers – different types of couplings, their purpose and applications.
- 5.2 Knowledge of various terms such as voltage gain, current gain, power gain,
- frequency response, decibel gain and band width
- 5.3 RC coupled two-stage amplifiers, circuit details, working, frequency response, applications
- 5.4 Loading effect in multistage amplifiers
- 5.5 Elementary idea about direct coupled amplifier, its limitations and applications
- 5.6 Transformer coupled amplifiers, its frequency response. Effect of co-efficient of
- coupling on frequency response. Applications of transformer coupled amplifiers

### 6. Field Effect Transistor (FET)

- 6.1 Construction, operation, characteristics and applications of a N channel JFET and P channel JFET
- 6.2 JFET as an amplifier
- 6.3 Types, construction, operation, characteristics and applications of a MOSFET
- 6.4 Comparison between BJT, JFET and MOSFET

## GENERAL WORKSHOP PRACTICE –II

(Common for Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Chemical Engineering )

Note: The students are supposed to come in proper workshop dress prescribed by the institute. Wearing shoes in the workshop(s) is compulsory. Importance of safety and cleanliness, safety measures and upkeep of tools, equipment and environment in each

of the following shops should be explained and practiced. The students should prepare sketches of various tools/jobs in their practical Notebook.

The following shops are included in the syllabus:

- 1 Fitting Shop
- 2 Sheet Metal Shop
- 3 Mason Shop
- 4 Machine Shop

### 1. FITTING SHOP

- 1.1 Use of personal protective equipment and safety precautions while working.
- 1.2 Basic deburring processes.
- 1.3 Introduction to fitting shop tools, marking and measuring devices/equipment.
- 1.4 Identification of materials. (Iron, Copper, Stainless Steel, Aluminium etc.)
- 1.5 Identification of various steel sections (flat, angle, channel, bar etc.).
- 1.6 Introduction to various fitting shop operations/processes (Hacksawing, Drilling,
- Chipping and Filing).
- 1.7 Job Practice
- Job I Marking of job, use of marking tools, filing and use of measuring instruments. (Vernier caliper, Micrometer and Vernier height gauge).
- Job II Filing a rectangular/square piece to maintain dimensions within an accuracy of ±.25 mm.
- Job III Making a cut-out from a square piece of MS flat using hand hacksaw and chipping
- Job IV Drilling and tapping practice on MS Flat.

### 2. SHEET METAL SHOP

2.1. Introduction to sheet metal shop, use of hand tools and accessories e.g. different

types of hammers, hard and soft mallet, sheet and wire gauge, necessary allowance

required during job fabrication, selection of material.

2.2 Introduction and demonstration of hand tools used in sheet metal shop.

2.3 Introduction and demonstration of various machines and equipment used in sheet

metal shop e.g. Shearing Machine, Bar Folder, Burring Machine,

2.4 Introduction and demonstration of various raw materials used in sheet metal shop

e.g. black-plain sheet, galvanized-iron plain sheet, galvanised corrugated sheet, aluminium sheet etc.

2.5 Study of various types of nuts, bolts, rivets, screws etc.

2.6 Job Practice

Job I: Shearing practice on a sheet using hand shears.

Job II: Practice on making Single riveted lap joint/Double riveted lap Joint.

Job III :Practice on making Single cover plate chain type, zig-zag type and single rivetted Butt Joint.

### 3 MASON SHOP

- 3.1. Introduction and importance of Mason shop
- 3.2. Introduction of tools, equipment and machines used in Mason shop
- 3.3. Job Practice
- Job I : Preparation of simple bond
- Job II : Preparation of Arched bond
- Job III: Preparation of RCC structure (column and beam)

### 4 MACHINE SHOP

- 4.1 Study and sketch of lathe machine
- 4.2 Study and Sketch of grinders, milling machine, drilling machine and CNC machine.
- 4.3 Plain and step turning and knurling practice.
- 4.4 Study and sketch of planning/shaping machine and to plane a rectangle of cast iron.

MEANS OF ASSESSMENT

- − Workshop jobs
- − Report writing, presentation and viva voce